Relationship between food waste, diet quality, and environmental sustainability

1. Rockstrom J, Stordalen GA, Horton R. Acting in the Anthropocene: the EAT-Lancet Commission. Lancet. 2016;387(10036):2364–5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30681-X [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

2. Popkin BM. The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. J Nutr. 2001;131(3):871s–3s. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

3. Popkin BM, Adair LS, Ng SW. Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutr Rev. 2012;70(1):3–21. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00456.x [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

4. Gill M, Feliciano D, Macdiarmid J, Smith P. The environmental impact of nutrition transition in three case study countries. Food Secur. 2015;7(3):493–504. [Google Scholar]

5. Tilman D, Clark M. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature. 2014;515(7528):518–22. doi: 10.1038/nature13959 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

6. Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, Fahimi S, Lim S, Andrews KG, et al. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys. BMJ. 2014;348. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

7. Micha R, Shulkin ML, Penalvo JL, Khatibzadeh S, Singh GM, Rao M, et al. Etiologic effects and optimal intakes of foods and nutrients for risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE). PLoS One. 2017;12(4):e0175149 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175149 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

8. Fischer CG, Garnett T. Plates, pyraminds, and planets—developments in national healthy and sustainable dietary guidelines: a state of play assessment UN Food and Agriculture Organization and The Food Climate Research Network; 2016. Available at: (verified 07 March 2018). [Google Scholar]

9. Ruini LF, Ciati R, Pratesi CA, Marino M, Principato L, Vannuzzi E. Working toward healthy and sustainable diets: The “Double Pyramid Model” developed by the Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition to raise awareness about the environmental and nutritional impact of foods. Front Nutr. 2015;2:9 doi: 10.3389/fnut.2015.00009 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

10. Nelson ME, Hamm MW, Hu FB, Abrams SA, Griffin TS. Alignment of Healthy Dietary Patterns and Environmental Sustainability: A Systematic Review. Adv Nutr. 2016;7(6):1005–25. doi: 10.3945/an.116.012567 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

11. Behrens P, Kiefte-de Jong JC, Bosker T, Rodrigues JFD, de Koning A, Tukker A. Evaluating the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 2017. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

12. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee: Advisory Report to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture. Part D, Chapter 5. Washington, DC; 2015. Available at: (verified 03 March 2018).

13. Ridoutt BG, Hendrie GA, Noakes M. Dietary Strategies to Reduce Environmental Impact: A Critical Review of the Evidence Base. Adv Nutr. 2017;8(6):933–46. doi: 10.3945/an.117.016691 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

14. Kummu M, de Moel H, Porkka M, Siebert S, Varis O, Ward PJ. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use. Sci Total Environ. 2012;438:477–89. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.08.092 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

15. Thyberg KL, Tonjes DJ. Drivers of food waste and their implications for sustainable policy development. Res, Cons, & Recyc. 2016;106:110–23. [Google Scholar]

16. Thyberg KL, Tonjes DJ, Gurevitch J. Quantification of Food Waste Disposal in the United States: A Meta-Analysis. Environ Sci Technol. 2015;49(24):13946–53. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b03880 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

17. Camargo GGT, Ryan MR, Richard TL. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Crop Production Using the Farm Energy Analysis Tool. Bioscience. 2013;63(4):263–73. [Google Scholar]

18. Galloway JN, Aber JD, Erisman JW, Seitzinger SP, Howarth RW, Cowling EB, et al. The Nitrogen Cascade. Bioscience. 2003;53(4):341–56. [Google Scholar]

19. Chen M, Graedel TE. A half-century of global phosphorus flows, stocks, production, consumption, recycling, and environmental impacts. Global Environ Change. 2016;36(Supplement C):139–52. [Google Scholar]

20. Schindler DW, Carpenter SR, Chapra SC, Hecky RE, Orihel DM. Reducing Phosphorus to Curb Lake Eutrophication is a Success. Envir Sci Tech. 2016;50(17):8923–9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

21. Pimentel D, Burgess M. Environmental and Economic Costs of the Application of Pesticides Primarily in the United States In: Integrated Pest Management. Dordrecht: Springer; 2013. 47–71 p. [Google Scholar]

22. McGuire VL. Water-level and recoverable water in storage changes, High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2015 and 2013–15. Report. Reston, VA; 2017. Report No.: 2017–5040. Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

23. Wichelns D, Oster JD. Sustainable irrigation is necessary and achievable, but direct costs and environmental impacts can be substantial. Agric Water Manage. 2006;86(1):114–27. [Google Scholar]

24. Buzby J, Hyman J. The estimated amount, value, and calories of postharvest food losses at the retail and consumer levels in the United States US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service; 2014. Contract No.: Economic Information Bulletin Number 121. Available at: (verified 07 March 2018). [Google Scholar]

25. US Environmental Protection Agency. Advancing sustainable materials management: 2014 tables and figures. 2016. Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

26. Spiker ML, Hiza HAB, Siddiqi SM, Neff RA. Wasted Food, Wasted Nutrients: Nutrient Loss from Wasted Food in the United States and Comparison to Gaps in Dietary Intake. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2017;117(7):1031–40.e22. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2017.03.015 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

27. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). About the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 2017. Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

28. Moshfegh AJ, Rhodes DG, Baer DJ, Murayi T, Clemens JC, Rumpler WV, et al. The US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method reduces bias in the collection of energy intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(2):324–32. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

29. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. Recommendations on Potential Approaches to Dietary Assessent for Different Research Objectives Requiring Group-level Estimates. Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

30. Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies [Internet]. 2016.Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

31. US Environmental Protection Agency. Food Commodity Intake Database (FCID). 2005–2010. Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

32. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes for Health. Overview and background of the Healthy Eating Index. Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

33. US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020. Washington, DC; 2015–2020. Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

34. Food Patterns Equivalents Database [Internet]. 2007-2014.Available at: (verified 21 February 2018).

35. Freedman LS, Guenther PN, Krebs-Smith SM, Kott PS. A population’s mean Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores are best estimated by the score of the population ratio when one 24-hour recall is available. J Nutr. 2008;138(9):1725–9. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

36. Loss-adjusted Food Availability (LAFA) data series [Internet]. 1980-2015.Available at: (verified 03 January 2018).

37. Peters C, Picardy J, Darrouzet-Nardi A, Wilkins J, Griffin T, Fick G. Carrying capacity of U.S. agricultural land: Ten diet scenarios. Elementa. 2016;4. [Google Scholar]

38. Agricultural Surveys [Internet]. 2011-2015.Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

39. American Fact Finder: annual estimates of the resident population [Internet]. 2015.Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

40. Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey [Internet]. 2003-2013.Available at website: (verified 07 March 2018).

41. About NASS Agricultural Surveys [Internet]. 2018.Available at: (verified 03 January 2018).

42. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Analytic Guidelines, 2011–2012. Available at: (verified 07 March 2018).

43. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes for Health. HEI Tools for Researchers. Available at: (verified 03 January 2018).

44. Eshel G, Shepon A, Makov T, Milo R. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(33):11996–2001. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1402183111 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

45. Heller MC, Keoleian GA. Greenhouse Gas Emission Estimates of U.S. Dietary Choices and Food Loss. J Ind Ecol. 2015;19:391–401. [Google Scholar]

46. Peters CJ, Wilkins JL, Fick GW. Testing a complete-diet model for estimating the land resource requirements of food consumption and agricultural carrying capacity: The New York State example. Renew Agric Food Syst. 2007;22(02):145–53. [Google Scholar]

47. Buzby JC, Wells HF, Vocke G. Possible Implications for US Agriculture from Adoption of Select Dietary Guidelines. Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service (ERS); 2006. Contract No.: Economic Research Report Number 31. Available at: (verified 03 January 2018).

48. Roark RA, Niederhauser VP. Fruit and vegetable intake: Issues with definition and measurement. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(1):2–7. doi: 10.1017/S1368980012000985 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

49. Woodside JV, Young IS, McKinley MC. Fruits and vegetables: measuring intake and encouraging increased consumption. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2013;72(02):236–45. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

50. Subar AF, Freedman LS, Tooze JA, Kirkpatrick SI, Boushey C, Neuhouser ML, et al. Addressing Current Criticism Regarding the Value of Self-Report Dietary Data. J Nutr. 2015;145(12):2639–45. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.219634 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

51. Birney CI, Katy FF, Davidson FT, Michael EW. An assessment of individual foodprints attributed to diets and food waste in the United States. Environ Res Lett. 2017;12(10):105008. [Google Scholar]

52. US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020, Chapter 1. Washington, DC; 2015–2020. Available at: (verified 25 January 2018).

53. Romani S, Grappi S, Bagozzi RP, Barone AM. Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste. Appetite. 2018;121:215–27. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2017.11.093 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

54. Hebrok M, Boks C. Household food waste: Drivers and potential intervention points for design–An extensive review. J Clean Prod. 2017;151:380–92. [Google Scholar]

55. Roe BE, Apolzan JW, Qi D, Allen HR, Martin CK. Plate waste of adults in the United States measured in free-living conditions. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):e0191813 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191813 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

56. Wilson NLW, Rickard BJ, Saputo R, Ho S-T. Food waste: The role of date labels, package size, and product category. Food Qual Prefer. 2017;55:35–44. [Google Scholar]

57. VTT Group. VTT sensor detects spoilage of food. Available at website: (verified 07 March 2018).

58. (verified 07 March 2018).

59. (verified 07 March 2018).

60. Food Date Labeling Act of 2016, House of Representatives, 114 Congress Sess. (2016).

61. Grocery Manufacturers Association. Grocery industry launches new initiative to reduce consumer confusion on product date labels. Available at: (verified 21 February 2018).

62. Gilliss D, Cronquist A, Cartter M, Tobin-D’Angelo M, Blythe D, Smith K, et al. Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food—Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 1996–2012. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep. 2013;62(15):283–7. [Google Scholar]

63. Smith JL. Foodborne Illness in the Elderly. J Food Prot. 1998;61(9):1229–39. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

64. US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Agricultural total factor productivity growth indices for individual countries, 1961–2013. 2017. Available at: (verified 04 January 2018).


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Related Post

Food WasteFood Waste

The Big Picture Food waste occurs along the entire spectrum of production, from the farm to distribution to retailers to the consumer. Reasons include losses from mold, pests, or inadequate